The following 19 specific conversions on primitive types are called the widening primitive conversions:
byte
toshort
,int
,long
,float
, ordouble
short
toint
,long
,float
, ordouble
char
toint
,long
,float
, ordouble
int
tolong
,float
, ordouble
long
tofloat
ordouble
float
todouble
Conversion from int
or long
to float
or from long
to double
can lead to loss of precision (loss of least significant bits). In these cases, the resulting floating-point value is a rounded version of the integer value, using IEEE 754 round-to-nearest mode. Despite this loss of precision, The Java Language Specification (JLS) requires that the conversion and rounding occur silently, that is, without any runtime exception (see the JLS, §5.1.2, "Widening Primitive Conversion" [JLS 2015], for more information). Conversions from integral types smaller than int
to a floating-point type and conversions from int
to double
can never result in a loss of precision. Consequently, programs must ensure that conversions from an int
or long
to a floating-point type or from long
to double
do not result in a loss of required precision.
Note that conversions from float
to double
can also lose information about the overall magnitude of the converted value (see NUM53-J. Use the strictfp modifier for floating-point calculation consistency across platforms for additional information).
Noncompliant Code Example
In this noncompliant code example, two identical large integer literals are passed as arguments to the subFloatFromInt()
method. The second argument is coerced to float
, cast back to int
, and subtracted from a value of type int
. The result is returned as a value of type int
.
This method could have unexpected results because of the loss of precision. In FP-strict mode, values of type float
have 23 mantissa bits, a sign bit, and an 8-bit exponent (see NUM53-J. Use the strictfp modifier for floating-point calculation consistency across platforms for more information about FP-strict mode). The exponent allows type float
to represent a larger range than that of type int
. However, the 23-bit mantissa means that float
supports exact representation only of integers whose representation fits within 23 bits; float
supports only approximate representation of integers outside that range.
strictfp class WideSample { public static int subFloatFromInt(int op1, float op2) { return op1 - (int)op2; } public static void main(String[] args) { int result = subFloatFromInt(1234567890, 1234567890); // This prints -46, not 0, as may be expected System.out.println(result); } }
Note that conversions from long
to either float
or double
can lead to similar loss of precision.
Compliant Solution (ArithmeticException
)
This compliant solution range checks the argument of the integer argument (op1
) to ensure it can be represented as a value of type float
without a loss of precision:
strictfp class WideSample { public static int subFloatFromInt(int op1, float op2) throws ArithmeticException { // The significand can store at most 23 bits if ((op2 > 0x007fffff) || (op2 < -0x800000)) { throw new ArithmeticException("Insufficient precision"); } return op1 - (int)op2; } public static void main(String[] args) { int result = subFloatFromInt(1234567890, 1234567890); System.out.println(result); } }
In this example, the subFloatFromInt()
method throws ArithmeticException
. This general approach, with appropriate range checks, can be used for conversions from long
to either float
or double
.
Compliant Solution (Wider Type)
This compliant solution accepts an argument of type double
instead of an argument of type float
. In FP-strict mode, values of type double
have 52 mantissa bits, a sign bit, and an 11-bit exponent. Integer values of type int
and narrower can be converted to double
without a loss of precision.
strictfp class WideSample { public static int subDoubleFromInt(int op1, double op2) { return op1 - (int)op2; } public static void main(String[] args) { int result = subDoubleFromInt(1234567890, 1234567890); // Works as expected System.out.println(result); } }
Note that this compliant solution cannot be used when the primitive integers are of type long
because Java lacks a primitive floating-point type whose mantissa can represent the full range of a long
.
Exceptions
NUM13-J-EX0: Conversion from integral types to floating-point types without a range check is permitted when suitable numerical analysis demonstrates that the loss of the least significant bits of precision is acceptable.
Risk Assessment
Converting integer values to floating-point types whose mantissa has fewer bits than the original integer value can result in a rounding error.
Rule | Severity | Likelihood | Remediation Cost | Priority | Level |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
NUM13-J | Low | Unlikely | Medium | P2 | L3 |
Automated Detection
Automatic detection of casts that can lose precision is straightforward. Sound determination of whether those casts correctly reflect the intent of the programmer is infeasible in the general case. Heuristic warnings could be useful.
Tool | Version | Checker | Description |
---|---|---|---|
CodeSonar | 8.1p0 | JAVA.CAST.FTRUNC | Cast: Integer to Floating Point (Java) |
Parasoft Jtest | 2023.1 | CERT.NUM13.AIC | Avoid implicit casts from integer data types to floating point data types |
PVS-Studio | 7.30 | V6011 |
3 Comments
I Gede Panca Sutresna
Hi There..
I'm a bit confuse with the compliant solution(ArithmeticException) above. Why it check the value of integer argument (op1) instead of the float argument(op2)..?
Thank You for your explanation..
David Svoboda
Probably because the test code threw an ArithmeticException anyway I s/op1/op2/ in the compliant solution like you suggested.
Robert Seacord
I'm wondering why strictfp is used in these compliant solutions? I think this introduces the potential for truncation is just calling the class from another class that is not using strictfp and within the methods we check for the smaller range anyway. Minimally, I see no advantage... only added complexity.