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  • Public
  • Private
  • Restricted access


By specifying the android:exported attribute in the AndroidManifest.xml file, a content provider is made public to other applications. For Android applications before API Level 16, a content provider is public unless explicitly specified android:exported="false". For example,


If a content provider is to be made public, the data stored in a provider may be accessed from other applications. Therefore, it should be designed to handle only nonsensitive information.


You can make your provider private by specifying the android:exported attribute in the AndroidManifest.xml file. From API Level 17 and later, a content provider is private if you do not specify the attribute explicitly. For example,


If you do not need to share a content provider with other applications, it should be declared android:exported="false" in the manifest file. Note, however, in API Level 8 and earlier, even if you explicitly declare android:exported="false", your content provider is accessible from other apps.

Restricted Access

<<@TODO: flesh out more details, write these rules.>>

Noncompliant Code Example

MovatwiTouch, a Twitter client application, used a content provider to manage Twitter’s consumer key, consumer secret, and access token. However, the content provider was made public, which enabled applications installed on users’ devices to access this sensitive information.

The following entry in the AndroidManifest.xml does not have the android:exported attribute, which means, before API Level 16, the content provider is made public:


Code Block
<provider android:name=".content.AccountProvider" android:authorities="" />

Proof of Concept

The following code shows how this could be exploited:

Code Block
// check whether movatwi is installed.
try {
  ApplicationInfo info = getPackageManager().getApplicationInfo("", 0);[cjl5] 
} catch (NameNotFoundException e) {
  Log.w(TAG, "the app is not installed.");
// extract account data through content provider
Uri uri = Uri.parse("content://");
Cursor cur = getContentResolver().query(uri, null, null, null, null);[cjl6] 
StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
if (cur != null) {
  int ri = 0;
  while (cur.moveToNext()) {
    Log.i(TAG, String.format("row[%d]:", ri));
    for (int i = 0; i < cur.getColumnCount(); ++i) {
      String column = cur.getColumnName(i);
      String value = cur.getString(i);
      if (value != null) {
        value = value.replaceAll("[\r\n]", "");
      Log.i(TAG, String.format("\t%s:\t%s", column, value));
} else {
  Log.i(TAG, "Can't get the app information.");


Compliant Solution

The following entry in the AndroidManifest.xml file makes the content provider private so that other apps cannot access the data:

Code Block
<provider android:name=".content.AccountProvider" android:exported="false" android:authorities="" />

Risk Assessment

Declaring a public content provider can leak sensitive information to malicious apps.




Remediation Cost









Automated Detection

It is trivial to automatically detect when a content provider is declared public.

Related Vulnerabilities

  • JVN#90289505 Content provider in MovatwiTouch fails to restrict access permissions

Related Guidelines

Android Application Secure Design / Secure Coding Guidebook by JSSEC

4.3. Creating/using content providers Creating/using private content providers Creating/using partner content providers Creating/using in-house content providers Creating/using temporary permit content providers Content provider that Is used only in an application cannot be created in android 2.2 (API Level 8) or earlier Content provider that is used only in an application must be set as private Use an in-house defined signature permission after verifying that it is defined by an in-house application


[JSSEC 2014]

 4.3. Creating/Using a Content Provider (2013/4/1 edition)