Opening and closing braces for
while statements should always be used, even if the statement's body contains only a single statement.
for statement is used in a macro, the macro definition should not conclude with a semicolon. (See recommendation PRE11-C. Do not conclude macro definitions with a semicolon.)
Braces improve the uniformity and readability of code.
More importantly, when inserting an additional statement into a body containing only a single statement, it is easy to forget to add braces because the indentation gives strong (but misleading) guidance to the structure.
Braces also help ensure that macros with multiple statements are properly expanded. Such a macro should be wrapped in a do-while loop. (See recommendation PRE10-C. Wrap multi-statement macros in a do-while loop.) However, when the do-while loop is not present, braces can still ensure that the macro expands as intended.
Noncompliant Code Example
int login; if (invalid_login()) login = 0; else printfSystem.out.println("Login is valid\n"); /*/ debugging line added here */ login = 1; /* // this line always gets executed, regardless of a valid login! */
Due to the indentation of the code, it is difficult to tell that the code will not function as intended by the programmer, potentially leading to a security breach.
In the this compliant solution, opening and closing braces are used even when the body is a single statement.
This is a security loophole: , as users with invalid logins can still obtain administrator privileges.
In the this compliant solution, adding braces removes the ambiguity and ensures that privileges are correctly assigned.
EXP19 EXP05-C J
ISO/IEC 9899:1999 Section 6.8.4, "Selection statements"
MISRA Rule 14.8
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