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Traditionally C arrays are declared with an index that is either a fixed constant, or empty. An array with a fixed constant index indicates to the compiler how much space to reserve for the array. An array declaration with an empty index is considered an incomplete type, and indicates that the variable indicates a pointer to an array of indeterminite size.

The C standard, since 1999 has permitted array declarations to use extended syntax. The most well-known extension is for variable-length arrays (VLAs). In this case, the array index is a variable, and the size of the array is determined at run-time, rather than compile-time.

Section, paragraph 1, summarizes the array index syntax extensions:

... the [ and ] may delimit an expression or *. If they delimit an expression (which specifies the size of an array), the  expression shall have an integer type. If the expression is a constant expression, it shall  have a value greater than zero. The element type shall not be an incomplete or function type.

Consequently, an array declaration that serves as a function argument may have an index that is a variable or an expression. This does not indicate that the argument indicates a VLA, as the array argument is demoted to a pointer. But it can be used by developers to indicate the expected bounds of the array. This information may be used by compilers, or it may be ignored. But such declarations are useful to other developers as they serve to document relationships between array sizes and other relevant variables. Furthermore, the information can also be used by static analysis tools.

int f(size_t n, int a[n]);  // documents a relationship between n and a

Standard Examples

Section of the C Standard has several examples of conformant array parameters. Example 4 illustrates a variably modified parameter:

void addscalar(int n, int m, double a[n][n*m+300], double x);

int main(void) {
  double b[4][308];
  addscalar(4, 2, b, 2.17);
  return 0;

void addscalar(int n, int m, double a[n][n*m+300], double x) {
  for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
  for (int j = 0, k = n*m+300; j < k; j++)
    // a is a pointer to a VLA with n*m+300 elements
    a[i][j] += x;

Example 4 illustrates a set of compatible function prototype declarators

double maximum(int n, int m, double a[n][m]);
double maximum(int n, int m, double a[*][*]);
double maximum(int n, int m, double a[ ][*]);
double maximum(int n, int m, double a[ ][m]);


Noncompliant Code Example

This code example provides a function that wraps a call to the standard memset() function, and has a similar set of arguments. However, while this function clearly intends that p point to an array of at least n chars, this invariant is not explicitly documented.

void my_memset(char* p, size_t n, char v) {
  memset( p, v, n);

Noncompliant Code Example

This noncompliant code example attempts to document the relationship between the pointer and the size using conformant array parameters. However, the variable n is used as the index of the array declaration before n is itself declared. Consequently this code example is not standards-compliant, and will usually fail to compile.

void my_memset(char p[n], size_t n, char v) {
  memset( p, v, n);

Compliant Solution

This compliant solution declares the size_t variable n before using it in the subsequent array declaration. Consequently this code complies with the standard and successfully documents the relationship between the array parameter and the size parameter.

void my_memset(size_t n, char p[n], char v) {
  memset(p, v, n);


API05-EX0: The extended array syntax is not supported by MSVC.  Consequently C programs that must support Windows need not use conformant array parameters.

One option for portable code that must support MSVC is to use macros:

#include <stddef.h>
#if defined (_MSC_VER)
  #define N(x)
  #define N(x)  (x)
int f(size_t n, int a[N(n)]);


C11, section 

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