fault tolerance [IEEE Std 610.12 1990]
The ability of a system or component to continue normal operation despite the presence of hardware or software faults.
fields [JLS 2014]
The class variables and instance variables of classes, and constants of interfaces.
"Two actions can be ordered by a happens-before relationship. If one action happens-before another, then the first is visible to and ordered before the second. ... It should be noted that the presence of a happens-before relationship between two actions does not necessarily imply that they have to take place in that order in an implementation. If the reordering produces results consistent with a legal execution, it is not illegal. ... More specifically, if two actions share a happens-before relationship, they do not necessarily have to appear to have happened in that order to any code with which they do not share a happens-before relationship. Writes in one thread that are in a data race with reads in another thread may, for example, appear to occur out of order to those reads" [JLS 2005].