The process of parsing an integer or floating-point number from a string can produce many errors. The string might not contain a number. It might contain a number of the correct type that is out of range (such as an integer that is larger than INT_MAX). The string may also contain extra information after the number, which may or may not be useful after the conversion. These error conditions must be detected and addressed when a string-to-number conversion is performed using a C Standard Library function.

The strtol(), strtoll(),  strtoimax()strtoul(), strtoull(), strtoumax(), strtof(), strtod(), and strtold() functions convert the initial portion of a null-terminated byte string to a long int, long long int, intmax_tunsigned long intunsigned long long int, uintmax_t, float, double, and long double representation, respectively.

Use one of the C Standard Library strto*() functions to parse an integer or floating-point number from a string. These functions provide more robust error handling than alternative solutions. Also, use the strtol() function to convert to a smaller signed integer type such as signed int, signed short, and signed char, testing the result against the range limits for that type. Likewise, use the strtoul() function to convert to a smaller unsigned integer type such as unsigned int, unsigned short, and unsigned char, and test the result against the range limits for that type. These range tests do nothing if the smaller type happens to have the same size and representation for a particular implementation.

Noncompliant Code Example (atoi())

This noncompliant code example converts the string token stored in the buff to a signed integer value using the atoi() function:

#include <stdlib.h>
void func(const char *buff) {
  int si;

  if (buff) {
    si = atoi(buff);
  } else {
    /* Handle error */

The atoi(), atol()atoll(), and atof() functions convert the initial portion of a string token to int, long int, long long int, and double representation, respectively. Except for the behavior on error, they are equivalent to

atoi: (int)strtol(nptr, (char **)NULL, 10)
atol: strtol(nptr, (char **)NULL, 10)
atoll: strtoll(nptr, (char **)NULL, 10)
atof: strtod(nptr, (char **)NULL)

Unfortunately, atoi() and related functions lack a mechanism for reporting errors for invalid values. Specifically, these functions:

Noncompliant Example (sscanf())

This noncompliant example uses the sscanf() function to convert a string token to an integer. The sscanf() function has the same limitations as atoi():

#include <stdio.h>
void func(const char *buff) {
  int matches;
  int si;

  if (buff) {
    matches = sscanf(buff, "%d", &si);
    if (matches != 1) {
      /* Handle error */
  } else {
    /* Handle error */

The sscanf() function returns the number of input items successfully matched and assigned, which can be fewer than provided for, or even 0 in the event of an early matching failure. However, sscanf() fails to report the other errors reported by strtol(), such as numeric overflow.

Compliant Solution (strtol())

The strtol()strtoll()strtoimax())strtoul(), strtoull(), strtoumax(), strtof(), strtod(), and strtold() functions convert a null-terminated byte string to long intlong long int, intmax_tunsigned long intunsigned long long int, uintmax_t, float, double, and long double representation, respectively.

This compliant solution uses strtol() to convert a string token to an integer and ensures that the value is in the range of int:

#include <errno.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
void func(const char *buff) {
  char *end;
  int si;

  errno = 0;

  const long sl = strtol(buff, &end, 10);

  if (end == buff) {
    fprintf(stderr, "%s: not a decimal number\n", buff);
  } else if ('\0' != *end) {
    fprintf(stderr, "%s: extra characters at end of input: %s\n", buff, end);
  } else if ((LONG_MIN == sl || LONG_MAX == sl) && ERANGE == errno) {
    fprintf(stderr, "%s out of range of type long\n", buff);
  } else if (sl > INT_MAX) {
    fprintf(stderr, "%ld greater than INT_MAX\n", sl);
  } else if (sl < INT_MIN) {
     fprintf(stderr, "%ld less than INT_MIN\n", sl);
  } else {
    si = (int)sl;

    /* Process si */

Risk Assessment

It is rare for a violation of this rule to result in a security vulnerability unless it occurs in security-sensitive code. However, violations of this rule can easily result in lost or misinterpreted data. 




Remediation Cost









Automated Detection





Axivion Bauhaus Suite

cert-err34-cChecked by clang-tidy



Use of atof
Use of atoi
Use of atol
Use of atoll

Users can add custom checks for uses of other undesirable conversion functions.


Can detect violations of this recommendation by flagging invocations of the following functions:

    • atoi()
    • scanf(), fscanf(), sscanf()
    • Others?
LDRA tool suite

44 S

Fully implemented

Parasoft C/C++test


The library functions atof, atoi and atol from library stdlib.h shall not be used

Polyspace Bug Finder

Unsafe conversion from string to numeric valueString to number conversion without validation checks
5030Partially implemented


SonarQube C/C++ Plugin

Related Vulnerabilities

Search for vulnerabilities resulting from the violation of this rule on the CERT website.

Related Guidelines

Key here (explains table format and definitions)


Taxonomy item


CERT CINT06-CPP. Use strtol() or a related function to convert a string token to an integerPrior to 2018-01-12: CERT: Unspecified Relationship
CWE 2.11CWE-676, Use of potentially dangerous function2017-05-18: CERT: Rule subset of CWE
CWE 2.11CWE-7582017-06-29: CERT: Partial overlap

CERT-CWE Mapping Notes

Key here for mapping notes

CWE-20 and ERR34-C

Intersection( ERR34-C, CWE-20) = Ø

CERT C does not define the concept of ‘input validation’. String-to-integer conversion (ERR34-C) may qualify as input validation, but this is outside the scope of the CERT rule.

CWE-391 and ERR34-C

CWE-391 = Union( ERR34-C, list) where list =

CWE-676 and ERR34-C

CWE-758 and ERR34-C

Independent( INT34-C, INT36-C, MSC37-C, FLP32-C, EXP33-C, EXP30-C, ERR34-C, ARR32-C)

Intersection( CWE-758, ERR34-C) =

CWE-758 – ERR34-C =

ERR34-C – CWE-758 =


[ISO/IEC 9899:2011]Subclause 7.22.1, "Numeric conversion functions"
Subclause 7.21.6, "Formatted input/output functions"
[Klein 2002]