This standard provides rules for secure coding of applications (apps) for the Android platform. The goal of these rules and recommendations is to develop safe, reliable, and secure systems, for example by eliminating undefined behaviors that can lead to undefined program behaviors and exploitable vulnerabilities. Conformance to the coding rules defined in this standard are necessary (but not sufficient) to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of software systems developed on the Android platform. It is also necessary, for example, to have a safe and secure design. Safety-critical systems typically have stricter requirements than are imposed by this coding standard, for example requiring that all memory be statically allocated. However, the application of this coding standard will result in high-quality systems that are reliable, robust, and resistant to attack.

Each rule consists of a title, a description, and noncompliant code examples and compliant solutions, as well as other information. The title is a concise, but sometimes imprecise, description of the rule. The description specifies the normative requirements of the rule. The noncompliant code examples are examples of code that would constitute a violation of the rule. The accompanying compliant solutions demonstrate equivalent code that does not violate the rule or any other rules in this coding standard.

The Android Secure Coding Standards are organized into the following four categories:

Android apps are coded in multiple coding languages, with native apps including Java and an .xml manifest file. Often .sqlite files are included, too. Some Java apps include C/C++ code (supported by the Native Development Kit). There are also HTML5 apps, which are mobile apps built using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. CERT’s coding standards for other languages are applicable in part to the CERT Android coding standard, but some of the guidelines may not apply or may apply in ways particular to the Android standard. The links above specify the applicable guidelines from other CERT coding standards, plus the guidelines applicable only to Android app development.

A well-documented and enforceable coding standard is an essential element of coding on the Android platform. Coding standards encourage programmers to follow a uniform set of rules determined by the requirements of the project and organization rather than by the programmers’ individual preferences. Once established, these standards can be used as a metric to evaluate source code (using manual or automated processes).

CERT’s coding standards are being widely adopted by industry. Cisco Systems, Inc. announced its adoption of the CERT C Secure Coding Standard as a baseline programming standard in its product development in October 2011 at Cisco’s annual SecCon conference. Oracle has integrated all of CERT’s secure coding standards into its existing secure coding standards. This adoption is only a step in a long collaboration: CERT and Oracle previously worked together in authoring The CERT Oracle Secure Coding Standard for Java (Addison-Wesley, 2011).

This wiki contains ongoing updates of the standard between official published releases. If you are interested in contributing to the rules, create an account on the wiki and then request contributor privileges by sending a request to

The Secure Coding eNewsletter contains news from the CERT Secure Coding Initiative as well as summaries of recent updates to the standard rules. If you are interested in receiving updates directly, subscribe to the eNewsletter through our website or send a request to