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Do not use the null value in any instance where an object is required, including the following cases:

  • Calling the instance method of a null object
  • Accessing or modifying the field of a null object
  • Taking the length of null as if it were an array
  • Accessing or modifying the elements of null as if it were an array
  • Throwing null as if it were a Throwable value

Using a null in cases where an object is required results in a NullPointerException being thrown, which interrupts execution of the program or thread. Code conforming to this coding standard will consequently terminate because ERR08-J. Do not catch NullPointerException or any of its ancestors requires that NullPointerException is not caught. 

Noncompliant Code Example

This noncompliant example shows a bug in Tomcat version 4.1.24, initially discovered by Reasoning [Reasoning 2003]. The cardinality() method was designed to return the number of occurrences of object obj in collection col. One valid use of the cardinality() method is to determine how many objects in the collection are null. However, because membership in the collection is checked using the expression obj.equals(elt), a null pointer dereference is guaranteed whenever obj is null and elt is not null.

public static int cardinality(Object obj, final Collection<?> col) {
  int count = 0;
  if (col == null) {
    return count;
  }
  Iterator<?> it = col.iterator();
  while (it.hasNext()) {
    Object elt = it.next();
    if ((null == obj && null == elt) || obj.equals(elt)) {  // Null pointer dereference
      count++;
    }
  }
  return count;
}

Compliant Solution

This compliant solution eliminates the null pointer dereference by adding an explicit check:

public static int cardinality(Object obj, final Collection col) {
  int count = 0;
  if (col == null) {
    return count;
  }
  Iterator it = col.iterator();
  while (it.hasNext()) {
    Object elt = it.next();
    if ((null == obj && null == elt) ||
        (null != obj && obj.equals(elt))) {
      count++;
    }
  }
  return count;
}

Noncompliant Code Example

This noncompliant code example defines an isProperName() method that returns true if the specified String argument is a valid name (two capitalized words separated by one or more spaces):

public boolean isProperName(String s) {
  String names[] = s.split(" ");
  if (names.length != 2) {
    return false;
  }
  return (isCapitalized(names[0]) && isCapitalized(names[1]));
}

Method isProperName() is noncompliant because it may be called with a null argument, resulting in a null pointer dereference.

Compliant Solution (Wrapped Method)

This compliant solution includes the same isProperName() method implementation as the previous noncompliant example, but it is now a private method with only one caller in its containing class.  

public class Foo {
  private boolean isProperName(String s) {
    String names[] = s.split(" ");
    if (names.length != 2) {
      return false;
    }
    return (isCapitalized(names[0]) && isCapitalized(names[1]));
  }

  public boolean testString(String s) {
    if (s == null) return false;
    else return isProperName(s);
  }
}

The calling method, testString(), guarantees that isProperName() is always called with a valid string reference. As a result, the class conforms with this rule even though a public isProperName() method would not. Guarantees of this sort can be used to eliminate null pointer dereferences.

Compliant Solution (Optional Type)

This compliant solution uses an Optional String instead of a String object that may be null. The Optional class (java.util.Optional [API 2014]) was introduced in Java 8 and can be used to mitigate against null pointer dereferences.

public boolean isProperName(Optional<String> os) {
  String names[] = os.orElse("").split(" ");
  return (names.length != 2) ? false : 
         (isCapitalized(names[0]) && isCapitalized(names[1]));
}

The Optional class contains methods that can be used to make programs shorter and more intuitive [Urma 2014].

Exceptions

EXP01-J-EX0: A method may dereference an object-typed parameter without guarantee that it is a valid object reference provided that the method documents that it (potentially) throws a NullPointerException, either via the throws clause of the method or in the method comments. However, this exception should be relied on sparingly.

Risk Assessment

Dereferencing a null pointer can lead to a denial of service. In multithreaded programs, null pointer dereferences can violate cache coherency policies and can cause resource leaks.

Rule

Severity

Likelihood

Remediation Cost

Priority

Level

EXP01-J

Low

Likely

High

P3

L3

Automated Detection

Null pointer dereferences can happen in path-dependent ways. Limitations of automatic detection tools can require manual inspection of code [Hovemeyer 2007] to detect instances of null pointer dereferences. Annotations for method parameters that must be non-null can reduce the need for manual inspection by assisting automated null pointer dereference detection; use of these annotations is strongly encouraged.

ToolVersionCheckerDescription
The Checker Framework
2.1.3

Nullness Checker
Initialization Checker
Map Key Checker

Null pointer errors (see Chapter 3)
Ensure all fields are set in the constructor (see Chapter 3.8)
Track which values are keys in a map (see Chapter 4)

CodeSonar4.2FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_ALWAYS_NULL
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_ALWAYS_NULL_EXCEPTION
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_ARGUMENT_MIGHT_BE_NULL
FB.BAD_PRACTICE.NP_BOOLEAN_RETURN_NULL
FB.BAD_PRACTICE.NP_CLONE_COULD_RETURN_NULL
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_CLOSING_NULL
FB.STYLE.NP_DEREFERENCE_OF_READLINE_VALUE
FB.BAD_PRACTICE.NP_EQUALS_SHOULD_HANDLE_NULL_ARGUMENT
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_GUARANTEED_DEREF
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_GUARANTEED_DEREF_ON_EXCEPTION_PATH
FB.STYLE.NP_IMMEDIATE_DEREFERENCE_OF_READLINE
FB.STYLE.NP_LOAD_OF_KNOWN_NULL_VALUE
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_NONNULL_FIELD_NOT_INITIALIZED_IN_CONSTRUCTOR
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_NONNULL_PARAM_VIOLATION
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_NONNULL_RETURN_VIOLATION
FB.STYLE.NP_NULL_ON_SOME_PATH_FROM_RETURN_VALUE
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_NULL_ON_SOME_PATH_EXCEPTION
FB.STYLE.NP_NULL_ON_SOME_PATH_MIGHT_BE_INFEASIBLE
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_NULL_ON_SOME_PATH
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_NULL_PARAM_DEREF
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_NULL_PARAM_DEREF_NONVIRTUAL

FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_NULL_PARAM_DEREF_ALL_TARGETS_DANGEROUS
FB.STYLE.NP_PARAMETER_MUST_BE_NONNULL_BUT_MARKED_AS_NULLABLE
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_STORE_INTO_NONNULL_FIELD
FB.CORRECTNESS.NP_UNWRITTEN_FIELD
FB.STYLE.NP_UNWRITTEN_PUBLIC_OR_PROTECTED_FIELD
FB.CORRECTNESS.RCN_REDUNDANT_NULLCHECK_WOULD_HAVE_BEEN_A_NPE
FB.BAD_PRACTICE.NP_TOSTRING_COULD_RETURN_NULL
Null pointer dereference
Null pointer dereference in method on exception path
Method does not check for null argument
Method with Boolean return type returns explicit null
Clone method may return null
close() invoked on a value that is always null
Dereference of the result of readLine() without nullcheck
equals() method does not check for null argument
Null value is guaranteed to be dereferenced
Value is null and guaranteed to be dereferenced on exception path
Immediate dereference of the result of readLine()
Load of known null value
Non-null field is not initialized
Method call passes null to a non-null parameter
Method may return null, but is declared @Nonnull
Possible null pointer dereference due to return value of called method
Possible null pointer dereference in method on exception path
Possible null pointer dereference on branch that might be infeasible
Possible null pointer dereference
Method call passes null for non-null parameter (deref)
Non-virtual method call passes null for non-null parameter
Method call passes null for non-null parameter (deref all)
Parameter must be non-null but is marked as nullable
Store of null value into field annotated @Nonnull
Read of unwritten field
Read of unwritten public or protected field
Nullcheck of value previously dereferenced
toString method may return null
Coverity

v7.5


FORWARD_NULL
NULL_RETURNS
REVERSE_INULL
FB.BC_NULL_INSTANCEOF
FB.NP_ALWAYS_NULL
FB.NP_ALWAYS_NULL_EXCEPTION
FB.NP_ARGUMENT_MIGHT_BE_NULL
FB.NP_BOOLEAN_RETURN_NULL
FB.NP_CLONE_COULD_RETURN_NULL
FB.NP_CLOSING_NULL
FB.NP_DEREFERENCE_OF_ READLINE_VALUE
FB.NP_DOES_NOT_HANDLE_NULL
FB.NP_EQUALS_SHOULD_HANDLE_ NULL_ARGUMENT
FB.NP_FIELD_NOT_INITIALIZED_ IN_CONSTRUCTOR
FB.NP_GUARANTEED_DEREF
FB.NP_GUARANTEED_DEREF_ON_ EXCEPTION_PATH
FB.NP_IMMEDIATE_DEREFERENCE_ OF_READLINE
FB.NP_LOAD_OF_KNOWN_NULL_ VALUE
FB.NP_NONNULL_FIELD_NOT_ INITIALIZED_IN_CONSTRUCTOR
FB.NP_NONNULL_PARAM_VIOLATION
FB.NP_NONNULL_RETURN_VIOLATION
FB.NP_NULL_INSTANCEOF
FB.NP_NULL_ON_SOME_PATH
FB.NP_NULL_ON_SOME_PATH_ EXCEPTION
FB.NP_NULL_ON_SOME_PATH_ FROM_RETURN_VALUE
FB.NP_NULL_ON_SOME_PATH_ MIGHT_BE_INFEASIBLE
FB.NP_NULL_PARAM_DEREF
FB.NP_NULL_PARAM_DEREF_ALL_ TARGETS_DANGEROUS
FB.NP_NULL_PARAM_DEREF_ NONVIRTUAL
FB.NP_PARAMETER_MUST_BE_NON - NULL_BUT_MARKED_AS_NULLABLE
FB.NP_STORE_INTO_NONNULL_FIELD
FB.NP_TOSTRING_COULD_ RETURN_NULL
FB.NP_UNWRITTEN_FIELD
FB.NP_UNWRITTEN_PUBLIC_OR_ PROTECTED_FIELD
FB.RCN_REDUNDANT_COMPARISON_ OF_NULL_AND_NONNULL_VALUE
FB.RCN_REDUNDANT_COMPARISON_ TWO_NULL_VALUES
FB.RCN_REDUNDANT_NULLCHECK_ OF_NONNULL_VALUE
FB.RCN_REDUNDANT_NULLCHECK_ OF_NULL_VALUE
FB.RCN_REDUNDANT_NULLCHECK_ WOULD_HAVE_BEEN_A_NPE

Implemented
Fortify
V. 5.0

Missing_Check_against_Null
Null_Dereference
Redundant_Null_Check

Implemented
Findbugs
V. 2.0

NP_DEREFERENCE_OF_READLINE_VALUE
NP_NULL_PARAM_DEREF
NP_TOSTRING_COULD_RETURN_NULL

Implemented
Parasoft Jtest
10.3
BD.EXCEPT.NP, PB-RE-NMCD
SonarQube
6.7

S2259
S2225
S2447
S2637

Null pointers should not be dereferenced
"toString()" and "clone()" methods should not return null
Null should not be returned from a "Boolean" method
"@NonNull" values should not be set to null

Related Vulnerabilities

Java Web Start applications and applets particular to JDK version 1.6, prior to update 4, were affected by a bug that had some noteworthy security consequences. In some isolated cases, the application or applet's attempt to establish an HTTPS connection with a server generated a NullPointerException [SDN 2008]. The resulting failure to establish a secure HTTPS connection with the server caused a denial of service. Clients were temporarily forced to use an insecure HTTP channel for data exchange.

Related Guidelines

Android Implementation Details

Android applications are more sensitive to NullPointerException because of the constraint of the limited mobile device memory. Static members or members of an Activity may become null when memory runs out.

Bibliography



25 Comments

  1. I have four comments to this rule:

    1) Although a desirable rule, this is a rule that seems very cumbersome to enforce in general. If all dereferences in Java were to be guarded by a null test, then code would be cluttered with all these tests.

    2) One could of course just require that if a static analyzer cannot determine whether a pointer is null, then a test should be performed. That is perhaps more reasonable.

    3) However, what would one do when detecting a null? throw a NullPointerException? .. in which case one can just as well just let the JVM do it.

    4) The problem is obvious, just like one should not divide by zero or that one should not index outside array bounds.

    1. Thank you for your comments.

      1) It does appear to be slightly hard to enforce. There are some cases where there is an obvious bug which can be detected. For example -

      // sun.awt.X11.XMSelection
      // lines 242-246
      public synchronized void removeSelectionListener(
        XMSelectionListener listener) {
          if (listeners == null) {
            listeners.remove(listener);
        }
      }
      

      There is the problem of checking for null, clutter etc. and we can't do much about it. Guidelines like MET10-J. For methods that return an array or collection prefer returning an empty array or collection over a null value and OBJ14-J. Encapsulate the absence of an object by using a Null Object provide a starting point.

      2) I think this is a quality of implementation issue. If a tool cannot determine whether a pointer is null, it is less likely that a programmer will even realize there is a problem (and install tests). However, if a tool determines there is a problem, the developer must fix it or eliminate any false positives which might be a reasonable requirement. This guideline may not require the programmer to check for null under all cases then.

      3) This seems to go into runtime checking. Current tools like Findbugs evaluate likely branches and check code accordingly. The idea is to avoid obvious null dereferences before the code is run.

      4) The problem is about fixing errors in your code, just like other problems that cause runtime exceptions. Just that its frequency of occurrence is higher.

      In summary, the focus is on detecting obvious dereferences more than recommending checking for null on every instance. Does this address your comment?

      EDIT: I also think annotations like @NonNull will help here.

      1. Regarding point 3) above I saw some JDK code (String.java):

        public String toUpperCase(Locale locale) {
          if (locale == null) {
            throw new NullPointerException();
          }
          // ...
        }
        

        That looks strange to me, given your point. It seems checking and throwing an NPE explicitly may be more costly performance wise than letting the JVM do it for you.

  2. A comment to the risk assessment section: I'd like to see some reference that explains the relationship between cache coherency policy and null dereference in Java. Also how resource leak occurs.

  3. To put my two cents in, partially compatible to was already has been written:

    This rule looks to me like: "Don't produce bugs!" Maby  sometimes it is a lack of specifications, too.

    If there is a specification of an algorithm it should clearly tell, if the parameters of the algorithm are allowed to refer to null or not.

    • If null values are allowed, than you should check them, before trying to dereference them. It should be possible to deal with those null values without provoking or throwing of NullPointerExceptions. If NullPointerException will occur I would consider this as a bug in the invoked code. There may be other bugs that throw other Exceptions.
    • If null values are not allowed they should at least be checked at trust boundaries. If null parameters are passed a NullPointerException will be thrown. In this case there is a bug in the calling code, because it passes unchecked invalid parameters.

    Now, what is exactly causing the DOS? The occuring NullPointerExceptions? Calling code that includes bugs and may throw arbitrary exceptions?

    Until this question is answered I would set this rule in question.

    1. I'll agree with you regarding specifications...I've seen a lot of APIs that are not properly specified.

      The DOS is caused by the null pointer exception interrupting the program, and probably causing it to abort. The Java community has decided against letting NPEs be thrown and caught later.

      1. I just saw your comment on rule ERR08-J. Do not catch NullPointerException or any of its ancestors. The comment notes that one of the compliant solutions in that rule violates this rule, and any responses to that comment IMO belong here rather than there.

        1. Your comment raised a valid point: this rule would appear to require null checks on all objects passed to methods (lest a method dereference a null object parameter). Which we clearly don't support, as noted in the compliant code examples from ERR08-J.

          So I have added EXP01-EX0, an exception to this rule, which should address those code examples, and your comment. What do you think?

    2. Daniel,

      While I see your point, I'm not sure that I agree with it. Consider the following (contrived) code:

      public int foo(int x, boolean objIsNotNull, Object obj1, Object obj2){
        if (objIsNotNull) {
          obj1.equals(obj2);
        }
        return x;
      }
      

      What should be the annotation/comments for obj1? Well, it has a functional dependency on argument objIsNotNull. So, it really needs a conditional annotation. While this particular example is contrived, I believe this kind of pattern arises frequently. Specifically, the nullness of a given parameter might depend (in a complex manner) on other state, perhaps even global state.

      How does this pattern relate to the rule, as stated? Well, currently, the rule just says:

      null pointers must never be referenced.

      which does not rule out the given pattern. Of course, we could argue that it should, but I think that would be a hard sell and would certainly contradict a lot of existing code.

  4. The exception EXP01-EX0 doesn't seem in line with David's earlier comment:

    The Java community has decided against letting NPEs be thrown and caught later.

    nor with ERR08-J. Specifically, what value does documenting the potential for a NullPointerException have, if you're not supposed to catch it?

    1. After discussion with David S., we decided to leave this exception despite the above objections, as a concession to legacy code. However, it should be invoked with care. We also intend to revisit this decision in the future based on experience with checking codebases.

      1. A method may dereference an object-typed parameter without guarantee that it is a valid object reference provided that the method documents that it (potentially) throws a NullPointerException, either via the throws clause of the method or in the method comments. However, this exception should be relied upon sparingly.

        I don't think one should document an NPE in the form of javadocs for the method (or else soon you will have everyone doing it for all methods. Moreover it is not a checked exception.). It's better to leave a comment in the method itself. Again, I am unsure how a comment would actually solve the problem of culling NPEs.

        1. Dhruv,

          Regarding your overall sentiment: I agree in principle and hence the intent to revisit this decision.

          Regarding the comment placement: can you expand on why you see it preferable to place outside the javadoc comments? I would think it preferable to warn clients of the unsafety rather than to tuck it away as a "TODO" style comment in the code.

          1. One plausible alternative approach would be adding the @NotNull annotation to the parameter that won't be checked for null. Benefits include:

            • Documenting that the caller is responsible for ensuring that the actual parameter is non-null
            • Flagging the method for future static analysis
            • Indicating that the absence of the null check is intentional

            Note that simply adding the annotation is insufficient from a security point of view. For security, you'd need a successful analysis that proves that all callers pass non-null actuals.

            I'd vote for requiring the annotation as part of claiming the exception.

            1. This seems like a reasonable requirement to me as well.

          2. I don't think I have ever seen an NPE documented in @throws. I just searched and came across this quote:

            A @throws tag should be included for any checked exceptions (declared in the throws clause), as illustrated below, and also for any unchecked exceptions that the caller might reasonably want to catch, with the exception of NullPointerException.

            from this Oracle link.

            IMO, NPEs should be avoided and the client would probably expect the called code to not throw an NPE too. As we are talking about rules, a TODO comment would not eliminate the problem. Checking for null and taking appropriate action may be recommended. In fact an appropriate action can be returning null which is better and can be documented in @returns. If that smells, return an empty map or list instead of null. Throwing an NPE explicitly is not of much use.

  5. This rule is 100% wrong. Null-tolerance is a common cause of RCEs in the JRE. If the result of a bug has been detected, get the hell out of there by throwing an unchecked exception.

    (Interestingly from CWE-476 "In very rare circumstances and environments, code execution is possible." The only case of dereferencing from a null that caused an RCE that I can remember was a Flash bug that used a null as the base of an array. If the code was explicitly null-intolerant, then it would not have been an RCE (in fairness, there are many other ways the RCE could have been avoided).)

    1. Thomas,

      Sorry, I don't quite follow your point: the rule says nothing about null tolerance. It simply says not to dereference null pointers. You are more than welcome (and I daresay encouraged) to throw a different exception if a null pointer is encountered when one was not expected.

      This rule is no worse than any other rule instructing you not to misuse an API. And, qualitatively, it is even more important because NPEs are so pervasive (see Tony Hoares "Billion Dollar Mistake" talk). Hence the wealth of academic and industrial work related to statically rooting out (potential) null derefs. If you can suggest an alternative approach that would accomplish the same goal, then please suggest it. Pervasive use of the relevant annotations would be one approach, for example (if somewhat limiting as per my earlier comment to Daniel).

      Regarding RCE: again, the rule says nothing related to RCEs. It identifies the problem as DoS, which, while admittedly far less problematic than RCE, is still a serious problem.

      1. The body of the article is talking about null-tolerance. If you don't throw an exception when you encounter an [erroneous] null, what else is there?

        In Java SE 7 you are encouraged to use Objects.requiresNonNull, which throws an NPE.

        The Java tradition is to always check arguments, throw an exception in the event of an error. In this way bugs are caught quickly and execution with erroneous data is stopped. Following the advice of this rule, some kind of meaning is given to nulls and illegal execution continues in some cases causing RCEs. Something should probably be said about RCEs.

        A good implementation of "cardinality" is the OpenJDK implementation of Collections.frequency (in the Java library from J2SE 5.0). It correctly NPEs when given a null Collection (could have been Iterable, but that would be inconsistent). As is common, the loop is duplicated for null and non-null comparisons. If you want a null-tolerant equals, Objects.equals is provided from Java SE 7. Perhaps the easiest to read null-tolerant equals expression is `a==null ? b==null : a.equals(b)`. Generally the best implementation is `a == b || (a !?= null && a.equals(b))`, I suggest that is put in its own method if using old versions of Java.

        1. Thomas,

          The body of the article is talking about null-tolerance. If you don't throw an exception when you encounter an erroneous null, what else is there?

          Sorry, I don't see how you get that from what's written. We never advise not to throw an exception when you encounter an *erroneous* null. In both examples, null is a perfectly legal input that is handled as such. Can you point us to the specific place(s) in the text which you see as being null tolerant? I would be helpful so we can clarify the code/text.

          That said, perhaps we view null differently. Are you arguing that null should never be allowed and therefore always be considered erroneous? The key point that we're aiming for is that you not rely on the JVM to check your null errors for you. Instead, you should proactively build your code to either avoid them entirely, or handle them correctly when they are expected to appear. This approach is independent of issues of null tolerance, which I understand to mean handling null when it is not expected to appear.

        2. Regarding RCEs: please give an example (CVE, etc.) of an RCE in Java code which did not exploit a bug in the underlying JVM or a flawed security policy. My general impression is that Java's design guards against the traditional RCEs seen in C and C++ code (and other weakly typed languages).

      2. Thomas, thanks for reminding me of the Mark Dowd flash vulnerability. That issue was specific to C. There are other vulnerabilities associated with null pointers, mostly due to unusual circumstances where dereferencing a null pointer in C doesn't actually terminate the program. Remember, the C standard does not mandate that dereferencing null quits the program, it's merely a convention many platforms follow. None of this applies to Java.

        I suspect a lot of code can be excused by EXP01-EX0. You might argue that the NCCEs here could be excused if only they documented that they might throw NPE.

        The danger of this rule is twofold: that a user might be tripped up by an unexpected NPE and not know how to handle it in the field. And a developer might be tripped up in testing by an unexpected NPE. Developers are comfortable with NPEs thrown by methods they call, and are used to ensuring they don't send NULL to the wrong method. The real issue is if a NPE occurs in some method that they did not invoke. EG they call a() which calls b(), which...which calls z() which throws an NPE.

        There are two solutions to this problem: Either z() does something else, such as throwing YouProvidedThisBadInputException (eg something more specific/helpful to the developer than NPE). Or all the methods are documented wrt null-tolerance, so you can see which method passed invalid data.

        1. I spent some time reading up on this issue and have come to the conclusion that this rule is misguided and should be removed.  Java is broken. This rule will not fix it, and has a high likelihood of making things worse. A few example unintended consequences:

          1. (Bad) defensive programming. See Thomas's point about defensive programming.
          2. Code clutter. Adding null checks where the only outcome is to raise a different exception might help debugging but it won't change the correctness/effectiveness of the code. It will, however, further clutter the code, which has real (negative) consequences on readability and maintenance.
          3. Mistakes.  Every additional piece of code that needs to be written is an additional potential bug. The compiler does it automatically and correctly. Humans do not.

          See this excellent article Null Dereference Analysis in Practice, by Ayewah and Pugh (of findbugs fame), for a detailed discussion.

  6. Interesting that the single-argument doPrivileged has been added to the bibliography. The two-argument form is more interesting with regards to nulls. "If the context is null, then no additional restriction is applied." That is to say, if there's a way to execute the code without having initialised the acc variable, you then give all permissions rather than restricted permissions. It really helps code understandably if you do a null check every time you use these methods. That doesn't stop people wanting to remove the "code clutter" to create vulnerabilities.

    Also of note in Java SE 7 is java.util.Collections.requireNonNull. Although rather verbose and has (formerly) non-standard capitalisation, it does allow a null check to be written without necessarily adding a line of code. I note the bilbliography still points to Java SE 6 - that will no longer be supported shortly.

    1. We definitely need to add a CS that uses methods from java.util.Objects (such as requireNonNull).  The null-tolerant utility methods found there would clearly help with this issue. Also, an appropriate caution about both forms of doPrivileged is clearly in order.

      I'll work on both of these later today.