The C language provides several different kinds of constants: integer constants, such as
0x1C; floating constants, such as
6.022e+23; and character constants, such as
'\x10'. C also provides string literals, such as
"hello, world" and
"\n". These constants can all be referred to as literals.
When used in program logic, literals can reduce the readability of source code. As a result, literals, in general, and integer constants, in particular, are frequently called magic numbers because their purpose is often obscured. Magic numbers can be constant values that represent either an arbitrary value (such as a determined appropriate buffer size) or a malleable concept (such as the age at which a person is considered an adult, which can change between geopolitical boundaries). Rather than embed literals in program logic, use appropriately named symbolic constants to clarify the intent of the code. In addition, if a specific value needs to be changed, reassigning a symbolic constant once is more efficient and less error prone than replacing every instance of the value [Saks 2002].
The C programming language has several mechanisms for creating named, symbolic constants:
const-qualified objects, enumeration constants, and object-like macro definitions. Each of these mechanisms has associated advantages and disadvantages.
Objects that are
const-qualified have scope and can be type-checked by the compiler. Because they are named objects (unlike macro definitions), some debugging tools can show the name of the object. The object also consumes memory.
const-qualified object allows you to specify the exact type of the constant. For example,
buffer_size as a constant whose type is
const-qualified objects cannot be used where compile-time integer constants are required, namely to define the
- Size of a bit-field member of a structure.
- Size of an array (except in the case of variable length arrays).
- Value of an enumeration constant.
- Value of a
If any of these are required, then an integer constant (which would be an rvalue) must be used.
const-qualified objects allow the programmer to take the address of the object:
const-qualified objects are likely to incur some runtime overhead [Saks 2001b]. Most C compilers, for example, allocate memory for
const-qualified objects declared inside a function body can have automatic storage duration. If so, the compiler will allocate storage for the object, and it will be on the stack. As a result, this storage will need to be allocated and initialized each time the containing function is invoked.
Enumeration constants can be used to represent an integer constant expression that has a value representable as an
const-qualified objects, enumeration constants do not consume memory. No storage is allocated for the value, so it is not possible to take the address of an enumeration constant.
Enumeration constants do not allow the type of the value to be specified. An enumeration constant whose value can be represented as an
int is always an
A preprocessing directive of the form
define identifier replacement-list
defines an object-like macro that causes each subsequent instance of the macro name to be replaced by the replacement list of preprocessing tokens that constitute the remainder of the directive.
C programmers frequently define symbolic constants as object-like macros. For example, the code
buffer_size as a macro whose value is 256. The preprocessor substitutes macros before the compiler does any other symbol processing. Later compilation phases never see macro symbols, such as
buffer_size; they see only the source text after macro substitution. As a result, many compilers do not preserve macro names among the symbols they pass on to their debuggers.
Macro names do not observe the scope rules that apply to other names. Therefore, macros could substitute in unanticipated places with unexpected results.
Object-like macros do not consume memory; consequently, it is not possible to create a pointer to one. Macros do not provide for type checking because they are textually replaced by the preprocessor.
Macros can be passed as compile-time arguments.
The following table summarizes some of the differences between
const-qualified objects, enumeration constants, and object-like macro definitions.
Viewable by Debuggers
Compile-Time Constant Expression
Noncompliant Code Example
The meaning of the integer literal 18 is not clear in this example:
This compliant solution replaces the integer literal 18 with the symbolic constant
ADULT_AGE to clarify the meaning of the code:
Noncompliant Code Example
Integer literals are frequently used when referring to array dimensions, as shown in this noncompliant code example:
This use of integer literals can easily result in buffer overflows if, for example, the buffer size is reduced but the integer literal used in the call to
fgets() is not.
Compliant Solution (
In this compliant solution, the integer literal is replaced with an enumeration constant. (See DCL00-C. Const-qualify immutable objects.)
Enumeration constants can safely be used anywhere a constant expression is required.
Compliant Solution (
Frequently, it is possible to obtain the desired readability by using a symbolic expression composed of existing symbols rather than by defining a new symbol. For example, a
sizeof expression can work just as well as an enumeration constant. (See EXP09-C. Use sizeof to determine the size of a type or variable.)
sizeof expression in this example reduces the total number of names declared in the program, which is generally a good idea [Saks 2002]. The
sizeof operator is almost always evaluated at compile time (except in the case of variable-length arrays).
When working with
sizeof(), keep in mind ARR01-C. Do not apply the sizeof operator to a pointer when taking the size of an array.
Noncompliant Code Example
In this noncompliant code example, the string literal
"localhost" and integer constant
1234 are embedded directly in program logic and are consequently difficult to change:
In this compliant solution, the host name and port number are both defined as object-like macros, so they can be passed as compile-time arguments:
DCL06-C-EX1: Although replacing numeric constants with a symbolic constant is often a good practice, it can be taken too far. Remember that the goal is to improve readability. Exceptions can be made for constants that are themselves the abstraction you want to represent, as in this compliant solution.
Replacing numeric constants with symbolic constants in this example does nothing to improve the readability of the code and can actually make the code more difficult to read.
When implementing recommendations, it is always necessary to use sound judgment.
Note that this example does not check for invalid operations (taking the
sqrt() of a negative number). See FLP32-C. Prevent or detect domain and range errors in math functions for more information on detecting domain and range errors in math functions.
Using numeric literals makes code more difficult to read and understand. Buffer overruns are frequently a consequence of a magic number being changed in one place (such as in an array declaration) but not elsewhere (such as in a loop through an array).
|Axivion Bauhaus Suite|
Could detect violations of this recommendation merely by searching for the use of "magic numbers" and magic strings in the code itself. That is, any number (except a few canonical numbers: −1, 0, 1, 2) that appears in the code anywhere besides where assigned to a variable is a magic number and should instead be assigned to a
|LDRA tool suite|
"#define" or enum constants should be used instead of hard coded values whenever possible
|Polyspace Bug Finder|
Size of memory buffer is a numerical value instead of symbolic constant
Loop boundary is a numerical value instead of symbolic constant
3120, 3121, 3122,
3123, 3131, 3132
|SEI CERT C++ Coding Standard||VOID DCL06-CPP. Use meaningful symbolic constants to represent literal values in program logic|
|MITRE CWE||CWE-547, Use of hard-coded, security-relevant constants|
|[Henricson 1992]||Chapter 10, "Constants"|
|[Summit 2005]||Question 10.5b|